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Book Details


WDR 1990 : Poverty
Author :  The World Bank
Publisher : World Bank and Oxford University Press
Pub. Date :  1990
ISBN : 978-0-19-520851-1
DOI :  10.1596/978-0-19-520851-1
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Bibliographical note


Introduction

This Report has drawn on a wide range of World Bank reports and on numerous outside sources. World Bank sources include ongoing research as well as country economic, sector, and project work. The principal sources for each chapter are noted below. These and other sources are then listed alphabetically by author or organization in two groups: background papers commissioned for this Report and a selected bibliography. The background papers, some of which will be available through the Policy, Research, and External Affairs Working Paper series, synthesize relevant literature and Bank work. The views they express are not necessarily those of the World Bank or of this Report.

In addition to the principal sources listed, many persons, both inside and outside the World Bank, helped with the Report. In particular, the core team wishes to thank Ravi Kanbur, Michael Lipton, Martin Ravallion, and T. N. Srinivasan for their extensive support. Others who provided notes or detailed comments include Surjit Bhalla and Herman van der Tak.


Chapter 1

This chapter draws principally on IMF, OECD, and World Bank sources. Projections and background analysis were prepared by the International Economic Analysis and Prospects Division, International Economics Department, World Bank; Fardoust and Dhareshwar 1990 was an important background source. The preparation of special forecast scenarios was assisted by Robert Lynn, Christian Pedersen, and Karsten Pedersen. The sections on debt draw mainly on World Bank 1989f and on discussions with Constantijn Claessens,Charles Humphreys, Ishrat Husain, and Sweder van Wijnbergen. Box 1.2 is based on Dornbusch and Edwards 1989, Sachs 1989, and the background paper by Roubini. Box 1.4 draws mainly on van Wijnbergen 1990 and Box 1.5 on Borrell and Yang 1990. Ajay Chhibber, Alan Gelb, and Paul Meo provided valuable comments.


Chapter 2

Numerous World Bank, United Nations, and academic studies on poverty were consulted for the chapter. The three household profiles were inspired by Hartmann and Boyce 1983, Tremblay and Capon 1988, and household survey data from the World Bank’s Living Standards Measurement Study project, with help from Paul Glewwe and Dean Joliffe. Gabriela Vega also provided useful suggestions. Box 2.1 is based on the background paper by Anand and Harris and on Haddad and Kanbur 1989 and Ravallion 1988. Box 2.2 draws on the literature on poverty measurement, particularly Sen 1981, with policy applications from Ravallion and van de Walle 1988. The discussion in Box 2.3 is based on Collier and Lal 1986 , Collierand others 1986 , Drèze forthcoming, and Greer and Thorbecke 1986. Box 2.4 was prepared by Martin Ravallion and Apparao Katikineni from data files provided by ICRISAT, India. Gaurav Datt and Etienne van de Walle made useful comments.


Chapter 3

The discussion on changes in poverty draws on World Bank sources and on work by Elaine K. Chan on poverty decomposition and income distribution. Box 3.1 is based on Keyfitz 1985; and Box 3.2 on Bevan, Collier, and Gunning 1988, Collier forthcoming, Collier and others 1986, Wagao 1986 and material from Douglas Rimmer; Box 3.4 on the background paper by Williamson and Polak. William Ascher made substantial contributions to Box 3.5. Box 3.6 and the discussion of critical tradeoffs are based on the background paper by Bourguignon. Data for Figure 3.4 were provided by Juan Luis Londoño.


Chapter 4

This chapter draws extensively on World Bank sources and on the Bank’s operational experience. The section on government policy and rural development is based on the background paper by Papanek; on Adelman 1984, Booth 1989, Cavallo and Mundlak 1982, de Janvryand others 1989, Krueger, Schiff, and Valdés 1988, and Schiffand Valdés forthcoming ; on Lele 1989 and other materials from the Bank’s project on Managing Agricultural Development in Africa; and on material provided by Jean-Jacques Dethier. The discussion of infrastructure and technology draws on Anderson, Herdt, and Scobie 1988, Binswanger 1990, Binswanger, Khandker, and Rosenzweig 1989, Hayami and Ruttan 1985, Hazell and Ramasamy 1988, and Lipton and Longhurst 1989. Sources for the section on encouraging farm-nonfarm linkages include Haggblade and Hazell 1989 and Haggblade, Hazell, and Brown 1989. The section on urban and industrial growth benefited from de Soto 1989, International Labour Organisation 1985, Krueger 1983, Lee 1989, Lee and Anas 1989, and Little, Mazumdar. The discussion on access to land draws on the background paper on land rights by Bell, on Binswanger and Elgin 1988, and on material provided by Peter Hazell and Peter Hopcraft. The section on access to credit is based on the background paper on credit by Bell and on material prepared by Sharon Holt; other sources include Braverman and Guasch 1989, Hossain 1988, Huppi and Feder 1989, U.S. Agency for International Development 1989, Von Pischke 1989, and Von Pischke, Adams, and Donald 1983. Lynn Bennett, Millard Long, Elizabeth Rhyen, J. D. Von Pischke, and Jacob Yaron provided detailed comments. Material on access to infrastructure and technology came from the background papers by Holt and by the International Fund for Agricultural Development and from Cernea 1985, Korten 1980, Korten. and Siy 1988, Lewis and others 1988, and Uphoff 1986. The discussion on resource-poor areas is based on material prepared by Sharon Holt and on Lele and Stone 1989 and Leonard and others 1989; John Doolette contributed material, and Gloria Davis, Jeffrey Leonard, Augusta Molnar, and Robert Repetto provided comments. Box 4.1 is based on Binswanger 1989 and Box 4.2 on Ahmed and Hossain 1988. Box 4.3 draws on material prepared by Elizabeth King. Box 4.4 is based on background notes by Friedrich Kahnert and Oded Stark. Box 4.6 was prepared by Peter Hazell and Shem Migot-Adholla and draws on Blarel and Place 1990. Box 4.7 draws on material prepared for World Bank 1989c. Box 4.8 is based on Singh and Bara 1988, Box 4.9 on Kahnert 1989, and Box 4.10 on Piazza and Doolette 1990. Douglas Barnes, David Beckmann, Clive Bell, Hans Binswanger, Peter Hazell, Barbara Herz, Peter Hopcraft, Friedrich Kahnert, Robert Liebenthal, Luis Riveros, Ricardo Silveira, Roger Slade, and Norman Uphoff provided valuable comments on the chapter.


Chapter 5

This chapter draws heavily on World Bank experience in education and health. The section on primary education is based mainly on FLockheed, Verspoor, and others 1990 and on World Bank 1986b. The discussion on government intervention in health owes much to World Bank 1987b. Data on under 5 mortality are from United Nations, Department of International Economic and Social Affairs 1988 and Hill and Pebley 1988. The Westinghouse series of Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS) was a valuable source of information on child and maternal mortality, fertility, and family planning indicators. Ralph Henderson made available data generated by the Expanded Programme on Immunization of the World Health Organization. Nutrition information is drawn from United Nations 1987 and has benefited from suggestions by Alan Berg and John Mason. Nancy Birdsall provided material on demographic and family planning issues. Box 5.1 was inspired by work in progress in the Population, Health, and Nutrition Division of the World Bank, under the direction of Anthony Measham. Box 5.2 derives from the background paper by Lau, Jamison, and Louat. Box 5.3 was drafted by Ann Tinker and Box 5.4 by Eleanor Schreiber. The information for Box 5.5 was made available by the UNDP-World Bank Interregional Handpump Project. Barbara Herz, Dennis de Tray, Emmanuel Jimenez, Oded Stark, and Adriaan Verspoor provided detailed comments on the chapter.


Chapter 6

This chapter draws on a range of World Bank and other sources and benefited from discussions with people in and outside the Bank. The discussion of fishing communities is based on a background note by Jean-Philippe Platteau and on Platteau forthcoming. The section on food policies draws on Alderman forthcoming, Alderman and von Braun 1984, Berg 1987, Edirisinghe 1987, Jamaica Statistical Institute and World Bank 1988, Pinstrup-Andersen 1988, Ravallion 1987, Sen 1981, United Nations Children’s Fund 1989, and World Bank 1986c. Margaret Grosh provided information on Jamaican policies. The section on public employment schemes draws mainly on Acharya and Panwalkar 1988, Drèze and Sen 1990, and Ravallion 1990. Box 6.1 is based on material from the background papers by Atkinson and by Williamson and Polak and on Howard 1943. Box 6.2 draws on Besley and Kanbur 1988, Ravallion 1990, and background notes by Jean Drèze. Boxes 6.3 and 6.5 are based on material in Drèze forthcoming and Morgan forthcoming. Box 6.4 draws on information in Acharya and Panwalkar 1988. Helpful comments were provided by Alan Berg, Jean Drèze, Judith McGuire, Per Pinstrup-Andersen, Shlomo Reutlinger, Nicholas Stern, Kalanidhi Subbarao, and Joachim von Braun.


Chapter 7

The analysis of the relationship between macroeconomic policy and the poor draws on the background papers by Ahmed and Peters; Berry; Bourguignon, de Melo, and Suwa; and Fox and Morley. Other sources were Beaudry and Sowa 1989, Mazumdar 1989, World Bank country work, and papers prepared for the project on Labor Markets in an Era of Adjustment sponsored by the University of Warwick and the Economic Development Institute of the World Bank. The discussion of public spending is based on the background paper by Gallagher and the analysis of employment schemes in Bolivia, Chile, and Peru on Newman 1988, Universidad de Chile 1987, and Graham 1990. The discussion of compensation for laid-off workers draws on Collier 1988. Box 7.1 is based on Moser 1989, Box 7.2 on the background paper by de Janvry, Fargeix, and Sadoulet, and Box 7.3 on the background paper by Milanovic. Box 7.4 is drawn from Blejer and Guerrero forthcoming and Box 7.5 from African Farmer 1990. Box 7.6 was prepared by Stephen Haggard, drawing on Nelson 1990. Box 7.7 benefited from work for the Social Dimensions of Adjustment project undertaken by the African Development Bank, the United Nations Development Programme, and the World Bank. François Bourguignon, and Frances Stewart provided valuable comments on the chapter. Further assistance came from Perla Aizenman, Benoit Blarel, Fernando Luis Quevedo, and Luis Riveros.


Chapter 8

The discussion of trade and poverty draws on Finger and Messerlin 1989, Finger and Olechowski 1987, Karsenty and Laird 1987, Laird and Yeats 1990,Tyers and Anderson 1986, United Nations Conference on Trade and Development 1989, Whalley 1985, and Yeats 1981 and 1989 and on extensive discussions with Refik Erzan, Sam Laird, Paul Meo, and Alexander Yeats. Essential data were obtained from United Nations Conference on Trade and Development 1988. The discussion of the Multifibre Arrangement profited from the work of Erzan, Goto, and Holmes 1989 and Trela and Whalley 1988. The discussion of debt relies primarily on Greene 1989, Humphreys and Underwood 1989, and World Bank 1989f. Materials of the Development Assistance Committee, especially Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development 1985, 1989, and 1990, were the principal sources on aid and poverty; Josefina G. Valeriano provided invaluable research assistance. Other published studies on aid that were extremely useful included Cassen and associates 1986, Lele 1989, Mosley 1987, Riddell 1987, and World Bank 1986a. Box 8.1 was prepared by Paula Holmes and Paul Meo and Box 8.2 by Refik Erzan with the assistance of Paula Holmes. Box 8.3 draws mainly on Karsenty and Laird 1987. Box 8.4 owes much to the OECD sources, especially 1989. Box 8.5 is based largely on Ayres 1983 and World Bank 1988c and Box 8.6 on Ayres 1983, World Bank 1983, and recent unpublished World Bank studies. Box 8.7 profited from discussions with Robert Hindle, Shlomo Reutlinger, and Cornells Tuinenburg. David Beckmann, Michael Carter, and Robert Liebenthal provided valuable comments.


Background papers

Ahmad, Ehtisham,  and Christine Allison. “Poverty, Growth, and Public Policy in Pakistan.”

Ahmad, Ehtisham,  and Stephen Ludlow. “Poverty, Inequality, and Growth in Pakistan.”

Ahmad, Ehtisham,  and Yan Wang. “Inequality and Poverty in China: Institutional Change and Public Policy, 1978–1988.”

Ahmad, Ehtisham,  and Gang Zou. “Deprivation and Prosperity in Chinese History.”

Ahmed, Sadiq, R. Kyle Peters,  and Jr. . “Adjustment with Poverty Alleviation: Indonesia’s Experience.”

Anand, Sudhir,  and Christopher Harris. “On the Choice of Welfare Indicator in the Analysis of Poverty: An Illustration Using Sri Lankan Data.”

Atkinson, Anthony B. “Poverty, Economic Performance, and Income Transfer Policy in OECD Countries.”

Bell, Clive. “Credit and Saving.”

------------. “Land Reform, Tenancy, Productivity, and Employment as Aspects of Property Rights in Land.”

Bell, Clive,  and Robert Rich. “Rural Poverty and Agricultural Performance in India between 1956–57 and 1983–84.”

Berry, Albert. “The Effects of Stabilization and Adjustment on Poverty and Income Distribution: Aspects of the Latin American Experience.”

Bhalla, Surjit S. “The Role of Welfare Policies and Income Growth in Improving Living Standards in India and Sri Lanka.”

Bourguignon, François. “Optimal Poverty Reduction, Adjustment, and Growth: An Applied Framework.”

Bourguignon, François, Jaime de Melo,  and A. Suwa. “Distributional Effects of Adjustment Policies: Simulations for Two Archetype Economies.”

Chan, Elaine K. “A Compendium of Data on Poverty and Income Distribution.”

------------. “Decomposing Changes in Poverty.”

de Janvry, Alain, André Fargeix,  and Elisabeth Sadoulet. “Economic, Welfare, and Political Consequences of Stabilization Policies: A General Equilibrium Approach.”

Drèze, Jean P., Peter Lanjouw,  and Nicholas Stern. “Identifying and Reaching the Poor: Principles and Some Examples from a North Indian Village.”

Fox, M. Louise,  and Samuel A. Morley. “Who Paid the Bill? Adjustment and Poverty in Brazil, 1980–1995.”

Gallagher, Mark. “Fiscal Duress and the Social Sectors in Developing Countries.”

Hill, Kenneth. “Demographic Response to Economic Shock.”

Holt, Sharon L. “The Role of Institutions in Poverty Reduction: A Focus on the Productive Sectors.”

International Fund for Agricultural Development. “Poverty Alleviation: An IFAD Perspective.”

Lau, Lawrence, Dean Jamison,  and Frédéric Louat. “Education and Productivity in Developing Countries: An Aggregate Production Function Approach.”

Milanovic, Branko. “Poverty in Eastern Europe in the Years of Crisis: Poland, Hungary, and Yugoslavia.”

------------. “Poverty in Poland in the Years of Crisis, 1978–87.”

Papanek, Gustav F. “Growth, Poverty, and Real Wages in Labor-Abundant Countries.”

Pissarides, Christopher A. “Macroeconomic Adjustment and Poverty in Selected Developed Countries.”

Posarac, Aleksandra. “Poverty in Yugoslavia, 1978–87.”

Ravallion, Martin. “The Challenging Arithmetic of Poverty in Bangladesh.”

Ravallion, Martin, Gaurav Datt, Dominique van de Walle,  and Elaine K. Chan. “Quantifying the Magnitude and Severity of Absolute Poverty in the Developing World in the Mid-1980s.”

Roubini, Nouriel. “The Interactions between Macroeconomic Performance and Political Structures and Institutions: The Political Economy of Poverty, Growth, and Development.”

Szalai, Julia. “Poverty in Hungary during the Period of Economic Crisis.”

Teklu, Tesfaye,  and Joachim von Braun. “Coping with Disastrous Drought: The 1984/85 Famine in North Kordofan, Sudan.”

Williamson, Jeffrey G.,  and Ben Polak. “Poverty, Policy, and Industrialization: Lessons from the Distant Past.”


Selected bibliography

The word “processed" describes works that are reproduced from typescript by mimeography, xerography, or similar means; such works may not be cataloged or commonly available through libraries, or may be subject to restricted circulation.

Acharya, Meena,  and Lynn Bennett. 1983. Women and the Subsistence Sector: Economic Participation and Household Decisionmaking in Nepal. World Bank Staff Working Paper 526. Washington, D.C.

Acharya, Sarthi,  and V. G. Panwalkar. 1988. “The Maharashtra Employment Guarantee Scheme: Impacts on Male and Female Labour.” Prepared for. the Population Council Program on Women’s Roles and Gender Differences, Tata Institute of Social Sciences, Bombay, India, Processed.

Adelman, Irma. 1984. “Beyond Export-Led Growth.” World Development 12(9): September. 937–49.

African Development Bank. United Nations Development Programme. World Bank. 1990. The Social Dimensions of Adjustment in Africa: A Policy Agenda. Washington, D.C.: World Bank.

African Farmer. 1990. “Farmers Adjust to Economic Reform.” (Issue 3): April. 5–16.New York: The Hunger Project.

Ahmed, Raisuddin,  and Mahabub Hossain. 1988. “Developmental Impact of Rural Infrastructure: Bangladesh.” International Food Policy Research Institute, Washington, D.C. in collaboration with the Bangladesh Institute of Development Studies. Processed.

Alderman, Harold. Forthcoming. “Food Subsidies and the Poor.” World Bank, Latin America Technical Department, Washington, D.C., In George Psacharopoulos.  ed.,Essays on Poverty, Equity and Growth.

Alderman, Harold,  and Valerie Kozel. 1989. Formal and Informal Sector Wage Determination in Urban Low-Income Neighborhoods in Pakistan. Living Standards Measurement Study Working Paper 65. Washington, D.C.: World Bank.

Alderman, Harold,  and Joachim von Braun. 1984. The Effects of the Egyptian Food Ration and Subsidy System on Income Distribution and Consumption. Research Report 45. Washington, D.C.: International Food Policy Research Institute.

Allison, Christine. 1989. “Poverty, Inequality, and Public Policy in Pakistan.” World Bank, Eastern Africa Department, Washington, D.C. Processed.

Anderson, Jock R. 1985. Research and Agricultural Progress. Armidale, N.S.W., Australia: University of New England.

Anderson, Jock R., Robert W. Herdt,  and Grant M. Scobie. 1988. Science and Food: The CGIAR and Its Partners. Washington, D.C.: World Bank.

Ascher, William. 1984. Scheming for the Poor: The Politics of Redistribution in Latin America. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press.

Atkinson, A. B. 1987. “On the Measurement of Poverty.” Econometrica 55: 749–64.

Ayres, Robert L. 1983. Banking on the Poor: The World Bank and World Poverty. Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press.

Beaton, George H.,  and Hossein Ghassemi. 1982. “Supplementary Feeding Programs for Young Children in Developing Countries.” American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 35 (April): 864–916.

Beaudry, P.,  and N. K. Sowa. 1989. “Labor Markets in an Era of Adjustment: A Case Study of Ghana.” Paper prepared for . the Conference on Labor Markets in an Era of Adjustment, Coventry, U.K., August 7–10. sponsored by the Development Economics Research Centre, University of Warwick, and the Economic Development Institute of the World Bank. Processed.

Berg, Alan. 1987. Malnutrition: What Can Be Done? Lessons from World Bank Experience. Baltimore, Md.: Johns Hopkins University Press.

Besley, Timothy,  and Ravi Kanbur. 1988. “The Principles of Targeting.” Discussion Paper 85. Development Economics Research Centre, University of Warwick, Coventry, U.K., Processed.

Bevan, David, Paul Collier,  and Jan Gunning. 1988. “The Political Economy of Poverty, Equity and Growth: Indonesia and Nigeria.” World Bank, Latin America Technical Department, Washington, D.C. Processed.

Bhende, M. J. 1986. “Credit Markets in Rural South India.” Economic and Political Weekly 21: 38–39. (September. ).

Biggs, Tyler S., Donald R. Snodgrass,  and Pradeep Srivastava. 1990. “On Minimalist Credit Programs.” Development Discussion Paper 331. Economic Policy Series. Harvard Institute for International Development, Cambridge, Mass., Processed.

Binswanger, Hans P. 1989. “Brazilian Policies That Encourage Deforestation in the Amazon.” Environment Department Working Paper 16. World Bank, Washington, D.C., Processed.

------------. 1990. “The Policy Response of Agriculture.” In Proceedings of the World Bank Annual Conference on Development Economics 1989, Washington, D.C.: World Bank.

Binswanger, Hans P.,  and Miranda Elgin. 1988. “What Are the Prospects for Land Reform?.” Prepared for. the Twentieth International Conference of Agricultural Economists, Buenos Aires, August 24–31. Processed.

Binswanger, Hans P., Shahidur R. Khandker,  and Mark R. Rosenzweig. 1989. “How Infrastructure and Financial Institutions Affect Agricultural Output and Investment in India.” Policy, Planning, and Research Working Paper 163. World Bank, Latin America and the Caribbean Country Department II, Washington, D.C., Processed.

Binswagner, Hans P.,  and Jaime B. Quizon. 1986. “What Can Agriculture do for the Poorest Rural Groups?.” Agriculture and Rural Development Department Discussion Paper ARU 57. World Bank, Washington, D.C., Processed.

Birdsall, Nancy. 1980. “Population Growth and Poverty in the Developing World.” Population Bulletin 35(5): December. 3–38.

Birdsall, Nancy,  and Estelle James. 1989. “Efficiency and Equity in Social Spending: How and Why Governments Misbehave.” Policy, Research, and External Affairs Working Paper 274. World Bank, Latin America and the Caribbean Country Department I, Washington, D.C., Processed.

Blarel, Benoit,  and Frank Place. 1990. “Land Tenure and Agricultural Production under Land Scarcity: The Case of Rwanda.” World Bank, Agriculture and Rural Development Department, Washington, D.C. Processed.

Blejer, Mario I.,  and Isabel Guerrero. Forthcoming. “The Impact of Macroeconomic Policies on Income Distribution: An Empirical Study of the Philippines.” Review of Economics and Statistics.

Boateng, E. Oti. and others. 1989. “A Poverty Profile for Ghana, 1987–88.” World Bank, Occidental and Central Africa Department, Washington, D.C., Processed.

Booth, Anne. 1989. “Indonesian Agricultural Development in Comparative Perspective.” World Development 17(8): August. 1235–54.

Borrell, Brent,  and Maw-Cheng Yang. 1990. “EC Bananarama 1992.” International Commodity Markets Paper. World Bank, International Economics Department, Washington, D.C., Processed.

Boulier, Bryan L. 1985. Evaluating Unmet Needs for Contraceptives: Estimates for Thirty-six Developing Countries. World Bank Staff Working Paper 678. Washington, D.C.

Bourguignon, François, William H. Branson,  and Jaime de Melo. 1989. “Adjustment and Income Distribution: A Counterfactual Analysis.” Policy, Planning, and Research Working Paper 215. World Bank, Country Economics Department, Washington, D.C., Processed.

Braverman, Avishay,  and J. Luis Guasch. 1989. “Rural Credit in Developing Countries.” Policy, Planning, and Research Working Paper 219. World Bank, Agriculture and Rural Development Department, Washington, D.C., Processed.

Brown, L. David,  and David C. Korten. 1989. “Understanding Voluntary Organizations: Guidelines for Donors.” Policy, Planning, and Research Working Paper 258. World Bank, Country Economics Department, Washington, D.C., Processed.

Bulatao, Rodolfo. and others. 1989. “Africa Region Population Projections: 1989–90 Edition.” Policy, Planning, and Research Working Paper 330. World Bank, Population and Human Resources Department, Washington, D.C., Processed.

Cassen, Robert. and associates. 1986. Does Aid Work? Report to an Intergovernmental Task Force. New York: Clarendon Press.

Castañeda, Tarsicio. Forthcoming. Innovative Social Policies for Reducing Poverty: Chile in the 1980s.

Cavallo, Domingo,  and Yair Mundlak. 1982. Agriculture and Economic Growth in an Open Economy: The Case of Argentina. Research Report 36. Washington, D.C.: International Food Policy Research Institute.

Cernea, Michael M, ed. 1985. Putting People First: Sociological Variables in Rural Development. New York: Oxford University Press.

------------, ed. 1990. Population Displacement in Water Resources Development: Current Practice, Issues, and Policy Responses. Harvard Institute for International Development Discussion Paper. Cambridge, Mass.

Chambers, Robert. 1983. Rural Development: Putting the Last First. London: Longman.

Chenery, Hollis. and others. 1974. Redistribution with Growth. New York: Oxford University Press.

Chhibber, Ajay. 1986. “Financing Public Expenditures in Developing Countries: Direct versus Indirect Taxation.” Resource Mobilization Department Working Paper. World Bank, Washington, D.C., Processed.

Collier, Paul. 1988. “African Public Sector Retrenchment: An Analytical Survey.” World Employment Programme Research Working Paper 27. International Labour Office, Geneva, Processed.

------------. Forthcoming. “Aid and Economic Performance in Tanzania.” In Uma Lele  and Ijaz Nabi, eds., Transitions in Development: The Role of Aid and Commercial Flows. San Francisco, Calif.: Institute for Contemporary Studies.

Collier, Paul,  and Deepak Lal. 1986. Labour and Poverty in Kenya, 1900–1980. Oxford: Clarendon Press.

Collier, Paul, Samir Radwan, Samuel Wangwe,  and Albert Wagner. 1986. Labour and Poverty in Rural Tanzania: Ujamaa and Rural Development in the United Republic of Tanzania. Oxford: Clarendon Press.

Cornia, Giovanni Andrea, Richard Jolly,  and Francis Stewart, eds. 1987. Adjustment with a Human Face. 2 vols. Oxford: Clarendon Press.

Cox, Donald,  and Emmanuel Jimenez. 1990. “Private Transfers and Public Policy in Developing Countries: A Case Study for Peru.” Policy, Planning, and Research Working Paper 345. World Bank, Country Economics Department, Washington, D.C., Processed.

Dandekar, Kumudini. 1983. Employment Guarantee Scheme: An Employment Opportunity for Women. Gokhale Institute Study 67. Bombay, India: Orient Longman.

Datt, Gaurav,  and Martin Ravallion. 1990. “Regional Disparities, Targeting, and Poverty in India.” Policy, Research, and External Affairs Working Paper 375. World Bank, Agriculture and Rural Development Department, Washington, D.C., Processed.

Deaton, Angus,  and Anne Case. 1988. Analysis of Household Expenditures. Living Standards Measurement Study Working Paper 28. Washington, D.C.: World Bank.

de Janvry, Alain,  and Elisabeth Sadoulet. 1988. “Investment Strategies to Combat Rural Poverty: A Proposal for Latin America.” Working Paper 459. Giannini Foundation of Agricultural Economics, University of California, Berkeley, Processed.

de Janvry, Alain. and others. 1989. Rural Development in Latin America: An Evaluation and a Proposal. IICA Program Paper 12. San Jose, Costa Rica: Instituto Interamericano de Cooperación para la Agricultura.

de Soto, Hernando. 1989. The Other Path: The Invisible Revolution in the Third World. New York: Harper and Row.

Donaldson, Graham. 1989. “Government-Sponsored Rural Development: Experience of the World Bank.” World Bank, Operations Evaluation Department, Washington, D.C. Processed.

Dornbusch, Rudiger,  and Edwards Sebastian. 1989. “Macroeconomic Populism in Latin America.” NBER Working Paper 2986. National Bureau of Economic Research, Cambridge, Mass., Processed.

Drabek, Anne Gordon, ed. 1987. “Development Alternatives: The Challenges for NGOs.” World Development 15(suppl): Autumn.

Drèze, Jean P. Forthcoming. “Famine Prevention in Africa.” In Jean P. Drèze  and Amartya K. Sen, eds., The Political Economy of Hunger. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Drèze, Jean,  and Amartya Sen. 1990. Hunger and Public Action. Oxford: Clarendon Press.

Echeverri-Gent, John. 1988. “Guaranteed Employment in an Indian State.” Asian Survey 28(12): 1294–1310.

Edirisinghe, Neville. 1987. The Food Stamp Scheme in Sri Lanka: Costs, Benefits and Options for Modification. Research Report 58. Washington, D.C.: International Food Policy Research Institute.

Erzan, Refik, Junichi Goto,  and Paula Holmes. 1989. “Effects of the Multi-Fibre Arrangement on Developing Countries’ Trade: An Empirical Investigation.” Policy, Planning, and Research Working Paper 297. World Bank, International Economics Department, Washington, D.C., Processed.

Erzan, Refik,  and Peter Svedberg. 1989. “Protection Facing Exports from Sub-Saharan Africa in the EC, Japan, and the United States.” Policy, Planning, and Research Working Paper 320. World Bank, International Economics Department, Washington, D.C., Processed.

Evans, Timothy. 1989. “The Impact of Permanent Disability on Rural Households: River Blindness in Guinea.” IDS Bulletin 20(2): April. 41–48.

Fardoust, Shahrokh,  and Ashok Dhareshwar. 1990. “Long-Term Outlook for the World Economy: Issues and Projections for the 1990s.” Policy, Research, and External Affairs Working Paper 372. World Bank, International Economics Department, Washington, D.C., Processed.

Finger, J. Michael,  and Patrick A. Messerlin. 1989. The Effects of Industrial Countries’ Policies on Developing Countries. Policy and Research Series 3. Washington, D.C.: World Bank.

Finger, J. Michael  and Andrzej Olechowski, eds. 1987. The Uruguay Round: A Handbook on the Multilateral Trade Negotiations. Washington, D.C.: World Bank.

Fitchett, Delbert A. 1988. Agricultural Trade Protectionism in Japan: A Survey. World Bank Discussion Paper 28. Washington, D.C.

Food and Agriculture Organization. 1987. The Fifth World Food Survey. Rome.

------------. 1988. Rural Poverty in Latin America and the Caribbean. Prepared for. the FAO Regional Conference for Latin America and the Caribbean, Recife, Brazil. Rome, Processed.

Gallagher, Mark,  and Osita M. Ogbu. 1989. “Public Expenditures, Resource Use and Social Services in Sub-Saharan Africa.” World Bank, Africa Technical Department, Washington, D.C. Processed.

Galway, Katrina, Brent Wolff,  and Richard Sturgis. 1987. Child Survival: Risks and the Road to Health. Columbia, Md.: Institute for Resource Development/Westinghouse.

Garcia, Marito H.,  and Per Pinstrup-Andersen. 1987. The Pilot Food Price Subsidy Scheme in the Philippines: Its Impact on Income, Food Consumption, and Nutritional Status. Research Report 61. Washington, D.C.: International Food Policy Research Institute.

George, P. S. 1985. Some Aspects of Procurement and Distribution of Foodgrains in India. Working Paper on Food Subsidies 1. Washington, D.C.: International Food Policy Research Institute.

Gertler, Paul,  and Jacques van der Gaag. Forthcoming. The Willingness to Pay for Medical Care: Evidence from Developing Countries. Baltimore Md.: Johns Hopkins University Press.

Ghai, Dharam  and Samir Radwan, eds. 1983. Agrarian Policies and Rural Poverty in Africa. Geneva: International Labour Office.

Glewwe, Paul. 1988. The Distribution of Welfare in Côte d’Ivoire in 1985. Living Standards Measurement Study Working Paper 29. Washington, D.C.: World Bank.

------------. 1988. The Distribution of Welfare in Peru in 1985–86. Living Standards Measurement Study Working Paper 42. Washington, D.C.: World Bank.

Glewwe, Paul,  and Dennis de Tray. 1988. The Poor During Adjustment: A Case Study of Côte d’Ivoire. Living Standards Measurement Study Working Paper 47. Washington, D.C.: World Bank.

------------. 1989. The Poor in Latin America during Adjustment: A Case Study of Peru. Living Standards Measurement Study Working Paper 56. Washington, D.C.: World Bank.

Glewwe, Paul,  and Kwaku A. Twum-Baah. 1989. “The Distribution of Welfare in Ghana.” World Bank, Population and Human Resources Department, Washington, D.C. Processed.

Glewwe, Paul,  and Jacques van der Gaag. 1988. Confronting Poverty in Developing Countries: Definitions, Information, and Policies. Living Standards Measurement Study Working Paper 48. Washington, D.C.: World Bank.

Golub, Stephen S.,  and J. M. Finger. 1979. “The Processing of Primary Commodities: Effects of Developed-Country Tariff Escalation and Developing-Country Export Taxes.” Journal of Political Economy 87(3): June. 559–77.

Junichi, Goto. 1989. “The Multifibre Arrangement and Its Effects on Developing Countries.” World Bank Research Observer 4(2): July. 203–27.

Carol, Graham. 1990. “The APRA Government and the Urban Poor: The PAIT Programme in Lima’s Pueblos Jovenes.” Duke University, Durham, N.C. Processed.

Greene, Joshua. 1989. “The External Debt Problem of Sub-Saharan Africa.” IMF Staff Papers 36(4): December. 836–74.

Greer, Joel,  and Erik Thorbecke. 1986. “Food Poverty Profile Applied to Kenyan Smallholders.” Economic Development and Cultural Change 35 (October): 115–41.

Griffin, Charles C. 1988. User Charges for Health Care in Principle and Practice. EDI Seminar Paper 37. Washington, D.C.: World Bank.

Haddad, Lawrence,  and Ravi Kanbur. 1989. “How Serious Is the Neglect of Intrahousehold Inequality?.” "Policy, Planning, and Research Working Paper 296. World Bank, Office of the Vice President, Development Economics, Washington, D.C., Processed.

Haggblade, Steven,  and Peter Hazell. 1989. “Agricultural Technology and Farm-Nonfarm Growth Linkages.” Agricultural Economics 3: 345–64.

Haggblade, Steven, Peter Hazell,  and James Brown. 1989. “Farm-Nonfarm Linkages in Rural Sub-Saharan Africa.” World Development 17(8): August. 1173–1201.

Halstead, Scott B. and others, eds. 1985. Good Health at Low Cost. New York: Rockefeller Foundation.

Hart, Gillian. 1986. Power, Labor, and Livelihood: Processes of Change in Rural Java. Berkeley: University of California Press.

Hartmann, Betsy,  and James K. Boyce. 1983. A Quiet Violence: View from a Bangladesh Village. London: Zed Press.

Hayami, Yujiro,  and Vernon W. Ruttan. 1985. Agricultural Development: An International Perspective. Baltimore, Md.: Johns Hopkins University Press.

Hazell, Peter B. R.,  and C. Ramasamy. 1988. “Green Revolution Reconsidered: The Impact of the High-Yielding Rice Varieties in South India.” World Bank, Agriculture and Rural Development Department, Washington, D.C. Processed.

Herz, Barbara,  and Anthony R. Measham. 1987. The Safe Motherhood Initiative: Proposals for Action. World Bank Discussion Paper 9. Washington, D.C.

Hill, Kenneth,  and Ann R. Pebley. 1988. “Levels, Trends and Patterns of Child Mortality in the Developing World.” Prepared for. the Workshop on Child Survival Programs: Issues for the 1990s, School of Hygiene and Public Health, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Md., November 20–21. Processed.

Hinchliffe, Keith. 1986. “The Monetary and Non-Monetary Returns to Education in Africa.” Education and Training Discussion Paper EDT46. World Bank, Washington, D.C., Processed.

Hossain, Mahabub. 1988. Credit for Alleviation of Rural Poverty: The Grameen Bank in Bangladesh. Research Report 65. Washington, D.C.: International Food Policy Research Institute, in collaboration with the Bangladesh Institute of Development Studies.

Hossain, Mahabub,  and Rita Afsar. 1989. Credit for Women’s Involvement in Economic Activities in Rural Bangladesh. Research Report 105. Dhaka: Bangladesh Institute of Development Studies.

Hossain, Mosharaff. 1987. The Assault That Failed: A Profile of Absolute Poverty in Six Villages of Bangladesh. Geneva: United Nations Research Institute for Social Development.

Howard, Donald S. 1943. The WPA and Federal Relief Policy. New York: Russell Sage Foundation.

Humphreys, Charles,  and John Underwood. 1989. “The External Debt Difficulties of Low-Income Africa.” In Ishrat Husain  and Ishac Diwan, eds., Dealing with the Debt Crisis. Washington, D.C.: World Bank.

Huppi, Monika,  and Gershon Feder. 1989. “The Role of Groups and Credit Cooperatives in Rural Lending.” World Bank, Agriculture and Rural Development Department, Washington, D.C. Processed.

Iliffe, John. 1987. The African Poor. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

India, Government of. 1987. Family Welfare Programme in India: Year Book 1986–87. New Delhi: Ministry of Health and Family Welfare, Department of Family Welfare.

Institute of Population Studies, Chulalongkorn University. 1989. Thailand: Health and Population Studies Based on the 1987 Thailand Demographic and Health Survey. Demographic and Health Surveys Further Analysis Series 1. New York: Population Council.

International Labour Organisation. 1985. Informal Sector in Africa. Addis Ababa: Jobs and Skills Programme for Africa.

------------. 1988. Employment Promotion in the Informal Sector in Africa. Addis Ababa: Jobs and Skills Programme for Africa.

International Monetary Fund. 1989. World Economic Outlook: A Survey by the Staff of the International Monetary Fund. Washington, D.C.

------------. Various years. International Financial Statistics Yearbook. Washington, D.C.

International Rice Research Institute. 1983. Women in Rice Farming. Manila.

Islam, Rizwanul, ed. 1987. Rural Industrialisation and Employment in Asia. New Delhi: International Labour Organisation, Asian Employment Programme.

Jamaica Statistical Institute and World Bank. 1988. “Living Conditions Survey, Jamaica.” Kingston, Processed.

------------. 1989. “Survey of Living Conditions, Jamaica.” Kingston, Processed.

Jamison, Dean T.,  and Lawrence J. Lau. 1982. Farmer Education and Farm Efficiency. Baltimore, Md.: Johns Hopkins University Press.

Jimenez, Emmanuel. 1987. Pricing Policy in the Social Sectors: Cost Recovery for Education and Health in Developing Countries. Baltimore, Md.: Johns Hopkins University Press.

Jodha, N. S. 1985. “Market Forces and Erosion of Common Property Resources.” In Agricultural Markets in the Semi-Arid Tropics: Proceedings of the International Workshop Held at ICRISAT Center, India, 24–28 October 1983. Patancheru, India: International Crops Research Institute for the Semi Arid Tropics.

------------. 1986. “Common Property Resources and Rural Poor in Dry Regions of India.” Economic and Political Weekly 21(27): July. 1169–81.

Kahnert, Friedrich. 1989. “Assisting Poor Rural Areas through Groundwater Irrigation: Exploratory Proposals for East India, Bangladesh and Nepal.” Asia Regional Series IDP44. World Bank, Washington, D.C., Processed.

Kanbur, Ravi S. 1990. Poverty and the Social Dimensions of Structural Adjustment in Côte d’Ivoire. Social Dimensions of Adjustment Working Paper 2. Washington, D.C.: World Bank.

Karsenty, Guy,  and Sam Laird. 1987. “The GSP, Policy Options and the New Round.” Weltwirtschaftliches Archiv 123(2): 262–96.

Keja, Ko. and others. 1986. “Effectiveness of the Expanded Programme on Immunization.” World Health Statistics Quarterly 39: 161–70.

Keyfitz, Nathan. 1985. “An East Javanese Village in 1953 and 1985: Observations on Development.” Population and Development Review 11 (December): 695–719.

Khandker, Shahidur R. 1989. “Improving Rural Wages in India.” Policy, Planning, and Research Working Paper 276. World Bank, Population and Human Resources Department, Washington, D.C., Processed.

Korten, David. 1980. “Community Organization and Rural Development: A Learning Process Approach.” Public Administration Review 40(5): September–October, 480–511.

Korten, David C, ed. 1986. Community Management: Asian Experience and Perspectives. West Hartford, Conn.: Kumarian Press.

Korten, Frances F., Robert Y. Siy,  and Jr. . 1988. Transforming a Bureaucracy: The Experience of the Philippine National Irrigation Administration. West Hartford, Conn.: Kumarian Press.

Krueger, Anne O. 1983. Trade and Employment in Developing Countries: Synthesis and Conclusions. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

Krueger, Anne O.,  and Vernon W. Ruttan. 1989. “Assistance to Korea.” In Anne O. Krueger, Constantine Michalopoulos,  and Vernon W. Ruttan, eds. Aid and Development. Baltimore, Md.: Johns Hopkins University Press.

Krueger, Anne O., Maurice Schiff,  and Alberto Valdés. 1988. “Agricultural Incentives in Developing Countries: Measuring the Effect of Sectoral and Economywide Policies.” World Bank Economic Review 2(3): September. 255–71.

Laird, Sam,  and Alexander Yeats. 1990. Quantitative Methods for Trade Barrier Analysis. London: Macmillan.

Lal, Deepak,  and Hla Myint. 1989. “The Political Economy of Poverty, Equity, and Growth in Some Developing Countries: A Comparative Study.” World Bank, Latin America Technical Department, Washington, D.C. Processed.

Ledesma, Antonio J. 1982. Landless Workers and Rice Farmers: Peasant Subclasses under Agrarian Reform in Two Philippine Villages. Los Baños, Philippines: International Rice Research Institute.

Lee, Kyu Sik. 1989. The Location of fobs in a Developing Metropolis: Patterns of Growth in Bogotá and Cali, Colombia. New York: Oxford University Press.

Lee, Kyu Sik,  and Alex Anas. 1989. “Manufacturers’ Responses to Infrastructure Deficiencies in Nigeria: Private Alternatives and Policy Options.” Infrastructure and Urban Development Department Discussion Paper INU50. World Bank, Washington, D.C., Processed.

Lele, Uma. 1989. “Aid to African Agriculture: Lessons from Two Decades of Donor Experience.” "Discussion draft prepared for. the Managing Agricultural Development in Africa (MADIA) Symposium, World Bank, Africa Technical Department, Washington, D.C., Processed.

Lele, Uma,  and L. Richard Meyers. 1989. Growth and Structural Change in East Africa: Domestic Policies, Agricultural Performance, and World Bank Assistance, 1963–86. MADIA Discussion Paper 3. Washington, D.C.: World Bank.

Lele, Uma,  and Steven W. Stone. 1989. Population Pressure, the Environment, and Agricultural Intensification: Variations on the Boserup Hypothesis. MADIA Discussion Paper 4. Washington, D.C.: World Bank.

Leonard, Jeffrey H. and others. 1989. Environment and the Poor: Development Strategies for a Common Agenda. U.S.-Third World Policy Perspectives 11. New Brunswick, N.J.: Transaction Books.

Levy, Victor. 1988. “Aid and Growth in Sub-Saharan Africa: The Recent Experience.” European Economic Review 32, :1777–95.

Lewis, John P. and others. 1988. Strengthening the Poor: What Have We Learned?. U.S.-Third World Policy Perspectives 10. Washington, D.C.: Overseas Development Council.

Liedholm, Carl,  and Donald Mead. 1987. Small Scale Industries in Developing Countries: Empirical Evidence and Policy Implications. MSU International Development Paper 9. East Lansing: Department of Agricultural Economics, Michigan State University.

Lipton, Michael. 1983. Labor and Poverty. World Bank Staff Working Paper 616. Washington, D.C.

------------. 1985. Land Assets and Rural Poverty. World Bank Staff Working Paper 744. Washington, D.C.

------------. 1987. Improving the Impact of Aid for Rural Development. Discussion Paper 233. Brighton, U.K.: Institute of Development Studies, University of Sussex.

Lipton, Michael,  and Richard Longhurst. 1989. New Seeds and Poor People. London: Unwin Hyman.

Lipton, Michael,  and John Toye. 1990. Does Aid Work in India? A Country Study of the Impact of Official Development Assistance. London: Routledge.

Little, Ian M. D., Dipak Mazumdar, John M. Page,  and Jr. . 1987. Small Manufacturing Enterprises: A Comparative Analysis of India and Other Economies. New York: Oxford University Press.

Lockheed, Marlaine,  and Adriaan Verspoor. and others. 1990. “Improving Primary Education in Developing Countries: A Review of Policy Options.” World Bank, Population and Human Resources Department, Washington, D.C., Processed.

Londoño, Juan Luis. 1989. “Income Distribution in Colombia: Turning Points, Catching Up and Other Kuznetsian Tales.” Harvard University, Cambridge, Mass. Processed.

Mazumdar, Dipak. 1989. Microeconomic Issues of Labor Markets in Developing Countries: Analysis and Policy Implications. EDI Seminar Paper 40. Washington, D.C.: World Bank.

McGregor, J. Allister. 1988. “Credit and the Rural Poor: The Changing Policy Environment in Bangladesh.” Public Administration and Development 8: 467–81.

Mencher, Joan. 1988. “Women’s Work and Poverty: Women’s Contribution to Household Maintenance in Two Regions of South India.” In Daisy Dwyer  and Judith Bruce, eds., A Home Divided: Women and Income in the Third World. Palo Alto, Calif.: Stanford University Press.

Migot-Adholla, Shem. and others. n.d. “Land Tenure Reform and Agricultural Development in SubSaharan Africa.” World Bank, Agriculture and Rural Development Department, Washington, D.C., Processed.

Morgan, Richard G. Forthcoming. “Social Welfare Programmes and the Reduction of Household Vulnerability in the SADCC States of Southern Africa.” In Ehtisham S. Ahmad. and others, eds., Social Security in Developing Countries. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Moser, Caroline O. 1989. “The Impact of Recession and Structural Adjustment Policies at the Micro-Level: Low Income Women and Their Households in Guayaquil, Ecuador.” Department of Social Administration, London School of Economics and Political Science, Processed.

Mosley, Paul. 1987. Overseas Aid: Its Defence and Reform. Brighton, U.K.: Wheatsheaf Books.

Mosley, Paul,  and Rudra Prasad Dahal. 1987. “Credit for the Rural Poor: A Comparison of Policy Experiments in Nepal and Bangladesh.” Manchester Papers on Development 3(2): July. 45–59.

Murray, Christopher J. L. 1987. “A Critical Review of International Mortality Data.” Social Science and Medicine 25(7): 773–81.

Nelson, Joan M, ed. 1990. Economic Crises and Policy Choice: The Politics of Adjustment in the Third World. Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press.

Newman, John L. 1988. Labor Market Activity in Côte d’Ivoire and Peru. Living Standards Measurement Study Working Paper 36. Washington, D.C.: World Bank.

Oberai, A. S. 1987. Migration, Urbanisation, and Development. Training in Population, Human Resources, and Development Planning Background Paper 5. Geneva: International Labour Office.

Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development. 1985. Twenty-Five Years of Development Co-operation: A Review. Paris.

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------------. 1988. Voluntary Aid for Development: The Role of Non-Governmental Organisations. Paris.

------------. 1989. Development Co-operation in the 1990s. Paris.

------------. 1990. Geographical Distribution of Financial Flows to Developing Countries, 1985–88. Paris.

Osmani, Siddiqur R.,  and Omar H. Chowdhury. 1983. “Short Run Impact of Food for Work Programme in Bangladesh.” Bangladesh Development Studies 11: 135–90.

Paul, Samuel. 1983. Managing Development Programs: The Lessons of Success. Boulder, Colo.: Westview Press.

Peek, Peter. 1988. “How Equitable Are Rural Development Projects?.” International Labour Review 127(1): 73–89.

Piazza, Alan,  and John Doolette. 1990. “The Impact of Combining Agricultural Techniques and Soil Conservation Measures in China’s Loess Plateau.” In Proceedings of the 1988 International Conference on Dryland Farming, College Station: Texas Agricultural Experiment Station, Texas A&M University.

Pinstrup-Andersen, Per. 1988. Consumer-Oriented Food Subsidies: Cost, Benefits and Policy Options for Developing Countries. Baltimore, Md.: Johns Hopkins University Press.

Pinstrup-Andersen, Per,  and Peter B. R. Hazell. 1985. “The Impact of the Green Revolution and Prospects for the Future.” Reprinted from. Food Reviews International 1. 1Washington, D.C.: International Food Policy Research Institute.

Pinto, Brian. 1987. “Nigeria during and after the Oil Boom.” World Bank Economic Review 1(3): May. 419–45.

Platteau, Jean-Philippe. Forthcoming. “Traditional Systems of Social Security and Hunger Insurance: Past Achievements and Modern Challenges.” In Ehtisham S. Ahmad. and others, eds., Social Security in Developing Countries. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Preston, Samuel. 1980. “Causes and Consequences of Mortality Declines in Less Developed Countries During the Twentieth Century.” In Richard Easterlin, ed.,Population and Economic Change in Developing Countries. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

Psacharopoulos, George. 1985. “Returns to Education: A Further International Update and Implications.” Journal of Human Resources 20, (Fall): 583–604.

Pulley, Robert V. 1989. Making the Poor Creditworthy: A Case Study of the Integrated Rural Development Program in India. World Bank Discussion Paper 58. Washington, D.C.

Ravallion, Martin. 1987. Markets and Famines. Oxford: Clarendon Press.

------------. 1988. “Expected Poverty under Risk Induced Welfare Variability.” Economic journal 98(393): December. 1171–82.

------------. 1989a. “Income Effects on Undernutrition.” Economic Development and Cultural Change 38 (April): 489–516.

------------. 1989b. “Land-Contingent Poverty Alleviation Schemes.” World Development 17(8): August. 1223–33.

------------. 1990. “Reaching the Poor through Rural Public Works: Arguments, Evidence, and Lessons from South Asia.” World Bank, Agriculture and Rural Development Department. Washington, D.C., Processed.

------------. Forthcoming. “Rural Welfare Effects of Food Price Changes under Induced Wage Responses: Theory and Evidence for Bangladesh.” Oxford Economic Papers.

Ravallion, Martin,  and Lorraine Dearden. 1988. “Social Security in a ’Moral Economy’: An Empirical Analysis for Java.” Review of Economics and Statistics 70(1): February. 36–44.

Ravallion, Martin,  and Monika Huppi. 1989. “Poverty and Undernutrition in Indonesia during the 1980s.” Agriculture and Rural Development Department Working Paper 286. World Bank, Washington, D.C., Processed.

Ravallion, Martin,  and Dominique van de Walle. 1988. “Poverty Orderings of Food Pricing Reforms.” Discussion Paper 86. Development Economics Research Centre, University of Warwick, Coventry, U.K., Processed.

Riddell, Roger C. 1987. Foreign Aid Reconsidered. Baltimore, Md.: Johns Hopkins University Press.

Riveros, Luis A. 1989. “Labor Markets in an Era of Adjustment: The Chilean Case.” Prepared for. the Conference on Labor Markets in an Era of Adjustment, Coventry, U.K., August 7–10. sponsored by the Development Economics Research Centre, University of Warwick, and the Economic Development Institute of the World Bank. Processed.

Rodgers, Gerry, ed. 1989. Urban Poverty and the Labor Market: Access to Jobs and Incomes in Asian and Latin American Cities. Geneva: International Labour Office.

Rodgers, Gerry  and Guy Standing, eds. 1981. Child Work, Poverty and Underdevelopment. Geneva: International Labour Office.

Rodrik, Dani. 1989. “Policy Uncertainty and Private Investment in Developing Countries.” NBER Working Paper 2999. National Bureau of Economic Research, Cambridge, Mass., Processed.

Sachs, Jeffrey D. 1989. “Social Conflict and Populist Policies in Latin America.” NBER Working Paper 2897. National Bureau of Economic Research, Cambridge, Mass., Processed.

Salmen, Lawrence F. 1987. Listen to the People: Participant-Observer Evaluation of Development Projects. New York: Oxford University Press.

Sarvekshana, Journal of the National Sample Survey Organization. 1988. Report of the Third Quinquennial Survey on Employment and Unemployment. New Delhi: Department of Statistics, Ministry of Planning.

Schiff, Maurice,  and Alberto Valdés. Forthcoming. The Economics of Agricultural Pricing Incentives in Developing Countries. Vol. 4, ofIn Anne O. Krueger, Maurice Schiff,  and Valdés Alberto, eds., A Comparative Study of the Political Economy of Agricultural Pricing Policies. Baltimore, Md.: Johns Hopkins University Press.

Sen, Amartya. 1981. Poverty and Famines: An Essay on Entitlement and Deprivation. Oxford: Clarendon Press.

Siamwalla, Ammar,  and Setboonsarng Suthad. 1989. Trade, Exchange Rate, and Agricultural Pricing Policies in Thailand. World Bank Comparative Studies, Washington, D.C.

Singh, K. P.,  and Niva Bara. 1988. “Integrating Women’s Concerns in Farming Systems Research/Extension: A Project in the Tribal Areas of Bihar (India).” Presented at the . Farming Systems Symposium, University of Arkansas, October 10–12. Processed.

Sinn, Hans-Werner. 1988. “The Sahel Problem.” Kyklos 41(2): 187–213.

Spinanger, Dean. 1987. “Will the Multi-Fibre Arrangement Keep Bangladesh Humble?.” World Economy 10(1): March. 75–84.

Srinivasan, T. N.  and Pranab K. Bardhan, eds. 1988. Rural Poverty in South Asia. New York: Columbia University Press.

Steinberg, David I. 1985. “Foreign Aid and the Development of the Republic of Korea: The Effectiveness of Concessional Assistance.” "AID Special Study 42. U.S. Agency for International Development, Washington, D.C., Processed.

Streeten, Paul. 1987. What Price Food? Agricultural Price Policies in Developing Countries. New York: St. Martin’s Press.

Subbarao, Kalanidhi. Forthcoming. “Interventions to Combat Household-Level Food Insecurity: A Review of India’s Experience.” " InIn Guhan Barbara Harriss  and Robert Cassen, eds., Poverty in India. Delhi: Oxford University Press.

Summers, Robert,  and Heston Alan. 1988. “A New Set of International Comparisons of Real Product and Price Levels Estimates for 130 Countries, 1950–1985.” Review of Income and Wealth.  (March. ):1–24.

Tendler, Judith. 1989. “What Ever Happened to Poverty Alleviation?.” "World Development 17(7): July. 1033–44.

Trela, Irene,  and John Whalley. 1988. “Do Developing Countries Lose from the MFA?.” NBER Working Paper 2618. National Bureau of Economic Research, Cambridge, Mass., Processed.

Tremblay, Hélène,  and Pat Capon. 1988. Families of the World: Family Life at the Close of the Twentieth Century. Vol. 1: The Americas and the Caribbean. New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux.

Tyers, Rodney,  and Kym Anderson. 1986. “Distortions in World Food Markets: A Quantitative Assessment.” Background paper for World Development Report 1986. World Bank, World Development Report Office, Washington, D.C., Processed.

United Nations. 1987. “First Report on the World Nutrition Situation.” Administrative Committee on Coordination, Subcommittee on Nutrition, Geneva, Processed.

------------. 1989. “Update on the Nutrition Situation: Recent Trends in Nutrition in 33 Countries.” Administrative Committee on Coordination, Subcommittee on Nutrition, Geneva, Processed.

United Nations Children’s Fund. 1988. Children on the Front Line: The Impact of Apartheid, Destabilization and Warfare on Children in Southern and South Africa. New York.

------------. 1989. Improving Child Survival and Nutrition: The Joint WHO/UNICEF Nutrition Support Programme in Iringa. Tanzania: Dar es Salaam.

------------. 1990. The State of the World’s Children. New York: Oxford University Press.

United Nations Conference on Trade and Development. 1988. Handbook of International Trade and Development Statistics: Supplement 1987. New York.

------------. 1989. Uruguay Round: Pavers on Selected Issues. New York.

United Nations, Department of International Economic and Social Affairs. 1988. Mortality of Children under Age 5: World Estimates and Projections, 1950–2025. Population Studies. 105, New York.

United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization. Various years. Statistical Yearbook. Paris.

Universidad de Chile. Facultad de Ciencias Económicas y Administrativas, Departamento Economía. 1987. Estudio sobre los Programas Especiales de Empleo. Vols. 1–3, Santiago.

Uphoff, Norman. 1986. Local Institutional Development: An Analytical Sourcebook with Cases. West Hartford, Conn.: Kumarian Press.

U.S. Agency for International Development. 1989. A.I.D. Microenterprise Stock-taking: Synthesis Report. AID Evaluation Occasional Paper. Washington, D.C.

U.S. Arms Control and Disarmament Agency. 1988. World Military Expenditures and Arms Transfers 1988. Washington, D.C.: Government Printing Office.

van Wijnbergen, Sweder. 1989. “Growth, External Debt, and the Real Exchange Rate in Mexico.” Policy, Planning, and Research Working Paper 257. World Bank, Latin America and the Caribbean Country Department II, Washington, D.C., Processed.

------------. 1990. “Mexico’s External Debt Restructuring in 1989/90: An Economic Analysis.” World Bank, Latin America and the Caribbean Regional Office, Washington, D.C. Processed.

von Braun, Joachim, Eileen Kennedy,  and Howarth Bouis. 1989. “Comparative Analyses of the Effects of Increased Commercialization of Subsistence Agriculture on Production, Consumption, and Nutrition.” International Food Policy Research Institute, Washington, D.C. Processed.

Von Pischke, J. D. 1989. “Finance at the Frontier: Debt Capacity and the Role of Credit in Developing the Private Economy.” World Bank, Economic Development Institute, Washington, D.C. Processed.

Von Pischke, J. D., Dale Adams,  and Gordon Donald. 1983. Rural Financial Markets in Developing Countries: Their Use and Abuse. Baltimore, Md.: Johns Hopkins University Press.

Wagao, Imanne Hamisi. 1986. “The Impact of Global Recession on Living Standards—Tanzania.” "Economics Department, University of Dar es Salaam, Processed.

Walker, Thomas S.,  and John G. Ryan. with others. Forthcoming. Against the Odds: Village and Household Economies in India’s Semi-Arid Tropics. Baltimore, Md.: Johns Hopkins University Press.

Watanabe, Barbara,  and Eva Mueller. 1984. “A Poverty Profile for Rural Botswana.” World Development 12(2): February. 115–27.

Webster, Leila. 1989. “World Bank Lending for Small and Medium Enterprises: Fifteen Years of Experience.” World Bank, Industry and Energy Department, Washington, D.C. Processed.

Whalley, John. 1985. Trade Liberalization among Major World Trading Areas. Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press.

Williamson, Jeffrey G. 1986. “Migration and Urbanization in the Third World.” Harvard Institute for Economic Research Discussion Paper 1245. Cambridge, Mass., Processed.

Wilson, Francis,  and Mamphela Ramphele. 1989. Uprooting Poverty: The South African Challenge. New York: W. W Norton.

World Bank. 1983. Learning by Doing: World Bank Lending for Urban Development, 1972–82. Washington, D.C.

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------------. 1986c. Poverty and Hunger: Issues and Options for Food Security in Developing Countries. A World Bank Policy Study. Washington, D.C.

------------. World Development Report 1986. New York: Oxford University Press.

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Statistical appendix

The tables in this statistical appendix present summary data on the population, national accounts, trade, and external debt of the low- and middle-income economies, the high-income economies, and all reporting economies as a group. Readers should refer to the "Definitions and data notes" for an explanation of the country groupings.
Table A.1 - Population growth, 1965 to 1990, and projected to 2000

Country group 1989 population (millions) Average annual growth (percent)
1965–73 1973–80 1980–90 1990–2000
Low- and middle-income economies 4,037 2.5 2.1 2.1 1.9
 Low-income economies 2,947 2.6 2.1 2.0 1.9
 Middle-income economies 1,090 2.4 2.3 2.1 1.9
 Sub-Saharan Africa 479 2.6 2.8 3.2 3.1
 East Asia 1,566 2.7 1.7 1.5 1.4
 South Asia 1,132 2.4 2.4 2.3 1.9
 Europe, Middle East, and North Africa 404 1.9 2.1 2.1 2.1
 Latin America and the Caribbean 422 2.7 2.4 2.1 1.8
 Severely indebted middle-income economies 506 2.5 2.3 2.1 1.8
High-income economies 789 1.0 0.8 0.7 0.5
 OECD members 789 1.0 0.8 0.7 0.5
Total reporting economies 4,826 2.2 1.9 1.8 1.7
 Oil exporters 609 2.7 2.7 2.7 2.4


Table A.2 - Population and GNP per capita, 1980, and growth rates, 1965 to 1989

Country group 1980 GNP (billions of dollars) 1980 population (millions) 1980 GNP per capita (dollars) Average annual growth of GNP per capita (percent)
1965–73 1973–80 1980–86 1987 1988 1989 a
Low- and middle-income Economies 2,406 3,359 700 4.0 2.6 1.5 2.7 3.4 1.2
 Low-income economies 784 2,459 320 3.6 2.4 4.0 3.9 6.8 1.8
 Middle-income economies 1,622 900 1,760 4.6 2.4 0.1 1.8 1.1 0.8
 Sub-Saharan Africa 213 362 570 3.0 0.1 −2.8 −4.4 −0.8 0.5
 East Asia 586 1,363 420 5.4 4.4 6.6 8.0 8.7 3.1
 South Asia 220 922 240 1.0 2.0 3.2 0.9 6.1 2.3
 Europe, Middle East, and North Africa 590 335 1,740 5.6 2.1 0.8 −0.6 0.1 0.6
 Latin America and the Caribbean 716 348 2,000 4.1 2.4 −1.6 1.5 −0.8 −0.8
 Severely indebted middle-income economies 791 419 1,840 4.2 2.6 −1.5 1.2 −0.4 −0.7
High-income economies 7,923 742 10,740 3.5 2.2 1.7 2.5 3.5 3.1
 OECD members 7,663 716 10,750 3.5 2.2 1.9 2.8 3.7 3.1
Total reporting economies 10,329 4,101 2,520 2.7 1.5 0.9 1.8 2.7 1.7
 Oil exporters 964 479 1,980 4.6 2.8 −1.6 −2.5 −0.5 ..

a. Preliminary.


Table A.3 - Population and composition of GDP, selected years, 1965 to 1989
(billions of dollars, unless otherwise specified)

Country group and indicator 1965 1973 1980 1985 1986 1987 1988 1989 a
Low- and middle-income economies
  GDP 377 849 2,406 2,521 2,598 2,818 3,159 ..
  Domestic absorption 375 842 2,446 2,522 2,618 2,801 3,178 ..
  Net exports 1 7 −39 0 −20 17 −19 ..
  Population (millions) 2,377 2,897 3,359 3,718 3,794 3,874 3,952 4,037
 Low-income economies
  GDP 168 312 784 824 785 812 923 984
  Domestic absorption 170 310 788 853 816 823 941 ..
  Net exports −2 2 −4 −29 −31 −11 −18 ..
  Population (millions) 1,741 2,129 2,459 2,714 2,770 2,828 2,884 2,947
 Middle-income economies
  GDP 209 537 1,622 1,698 1,813 2,006 2,236 ..
  Domestic absorption 206 532 1,658 1,669 1,803 1,978 2,237 ..
  Net exports 3 5 −36 29 10 28 −1 ..
  Population (millions) 635 768 900 1,003 1,025 1,046 1,068 1,090
 Sub-Saharan Africa
  GDP 29 65 213 195 164 150 161 156
  Domestic absorption 29 64 211 194 170 152 162 ..
  Net exports 0 2 2 0 −6 −1 −1 ..
  Population (millions) 243 299 362 422 435 449 464 479
 East Asia
  GDP 93 215 586 645 650 732 889 1,026
  Domestic absorption 93 213 585 645 635 699 860 ..
  Net exports 0 2 1 0 14 34 29 ..
  Population (millions) 980 1,208 1,363 1,470 1,492 1,516 1,538 1,566
 South Asia
  GDP 69 97 220 277 294 325 348 345
  Domestic absorption 72 99 236 291 308 332 358 351
  Net exports −3 −2 −15 −14 −13 −7 −10 −6
  Population (millions) 645 781 922 1,033 1,058 1,082 1,107 1,132
 Europe, Middle East, and North Africa
  GDP 73 186 590 668 741 796 .. ..
  Domestic absorption 73 183 611 693 .. .. .. ..
  Net exports 0 3 −21 −25 .. .. .. ..
  Population (millions) 250 290 335 372 380 388 396 404
 Latin America and the Caribbean
  GDP 99 254 716 682 698 739 852 ..
  Domestic absorption 96 253 726 650 681 720 830 ..
  Net exports 3 1 −10 31 16 19 22 ..
  Population (millions) 239 295 348 388 397 405 414 422
 Severely indebted middle-income economies
  GDP 109 280 791 755 784 822 943 955
  Domestic absorption 106 278 807 721 769 802 918 ..
  Net exports 3 2 −15 34 16 20 25 ..
  Population (millions) 294 357 419 466 476 486 496 506
 High-income economies
  GDP 1,406 3,330 7,914 8,938 10,860 12,599 14,108 15,237
  Domestic absorption 1,396 3,297 7,867 8,914 10,807 12,560 14,049 15,173
  Net exports 10 33 47 24 53 39 59 64
  Population (millions) 647 701 742 768 773 779 784 789
 OECD members
  GDP 1,391 3,283 7,652 8,700 10,633 12,347 13,836 14,943
  Domestic absorption 1,382 3,255 7,666 8,679 10,568 12,298 13,767 14,868
  Net exports 9 28 −14 21 65 50 68 75
  Population (millions) 632 681 716 738 742 746 751 755
 Total reporting economies
  GDP 1,783 4,180 10,320 11,459 13,458 15,417 17,267 ..
  Domestic absorption 1,772 4,139 10,313 11,435 13,425 15,361 17,227 ..
  Net exports 11 41 8 24 32 56 40 ..
  Population (millions) 3,024 3,598 4,101 4,485 4,567 4,653 4,736 4,826
 Oil exporters
  GDP 78 226 965 1,005 844 850 926 ..
  Domestic absorption 75 209 861 985 872 848 938 ..
  Net exports 3 17 104 19 −28 2 −12 ..
  Population (millions) 321 398 479 547 562 578 593 609

Note: Components may not sum to totals because of rounding. Domestic absorption includes private consumption, general government consumption, and gross domestic investment. Net exports includes goods and nonfactor services.

a. Preliminary.


Table A.4 - GDP, 1980, and growth rates, 1965 to 1989

Country group 1980 GDP (billions of dollars) Average annual growth of GDP (percent)
1965–73 1973–80 1980–86 1987 1988 1989 a
Low- and middle-income economies 2,406 6.6 4.8 3.8 4.5 5.4 3.3
 Low-income economies 784 6.0 4.6 6.1 6.1 8.9 4.2
 Middle-income economies 1,622 6.9 4.9 2.5 3.5 3.0 2.8
 Sub-Saharan Africa 213 5.9 2.7 0.3 −1.1 2.5 3.5
 East Asia 586 7.9 6.5 7.9 9.6 10.0 5.1
 South Asia 220 3.6 4.1 5.6 3.2 8.9 4.8
 Europe, Middle East, and North Africa 590 7.5 4.2 3.2 1.4 2.4 ..
 Latin America and the Caribbean 716 6.5 5.1 0.9 3.0 1.2 1.5
 Severely indebted middle-income economies 791 6.4 5.2 1.0 2.6 1.6 1.4
High-income economies 7,914 4.6 3.0 2.5 3.4 4.3 3.6
 OECD members 7,652 4.5 2.9 2.6 3.4 4.3 3.6
Total reporting economies 10,319 4.9 3.4 2.8 3.7 4.6 3.4
 Oil exporters 965 7.3 4.9 0.8 0.3 3.0 ..

a. Preliminary.


Table A.5 - GDP structure of production, selected years, 1965 to 1988
(percentage of GDP)

Country group 1965
1973
1980
1985
1986
1987
1988 a
Agriculture Industry Agriculture Industry Agriculture Industry Agriculture Industry Agriculture Industry Agriculture Industry Agriculture Industry
Low- and middle-income economies 30 30 24 34 19 38 19 36 19 35 18 37 17 37
 Low-income economies 43 27 39 32 32 37 33 33 32 32 31 33 31 34
 Middle-income economies 19 32 15 35 12 38 12 37 13 37 13 38 10 39
 Sub-Saharan Africa 40 17 33 24 28 32 34 26 34 23 31 25 31 25
 East Asia 41 35 34 40 26 44 25 42 24 42 23 43 22 43
 South Asia 41 19 43 19 35 22 31 24 29 25 29 25 30 24
 Europe, Middle East, and North Africa 22 33 17 38 14 41 .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ..
Latin America and the Caribbean 15 32 12 33 9 36 10 36 11 35 9 37 6 37
Severely indebted middle-income economies 16 32 13 33 10 36 11 35 11 34 10 37 7 38
High-income economies 5 40 5 38 3 37 3 34 3 32 3 31 .. ..
 OECD members 5 40 5 38 3 36 3 34 3 32 3 31 .. ..
Total reporting economies 10 38 9 37 7 37 6 35 6 33 5 32 .. ..
 Oil exporters 19 32 14 38 11 48 13 38 13 34 12 36 .. ..

a. Preliminary.


Table A.6 - Sector growth rates, 1965 to 1989
(average annual percentage change)

Country group Agriculture
Industry
Services
1965–73 1973–80 1980–89 1965–73 1973–80 1980–89 1965–73 1973–80 1980–89
Low- and middle-income economies 3.0 2.3 3.7 8.8 4.9 5.3 7.3 6.1 3.8
 Low-income economies 2.9 1.8 4.3 10.7 7.0 8.7 6.3 5.3 6.1
 Middle-income economies 3.2 3.0 2.7 8.0 4.0 3.2 7.6 6.3 3.1
 Sub-Saharan Africa 2.2 −0.3 1.8 13.9 4.2 −0.2 4.1 3.1 1.5
 East Asia 3.2 2.5 5.3 12.7 9.2 10.3 10.5 7.3 7.9
 South Asia 3.1 2.2 2.7 3.9 5.6 7.2 4.0 5.3 6.1
 Europe, Middle East, and North Africa 3.4 3.2 .. 8.6 1.4 .. 8.1 8.4 ..
 Latin America and the Caribbean 3.0 3.7 2.5 6.8 5.1 1.1 7.3 5.4 1.7
 Severely indebted middle-income economies 3.1 3.6 2.7 6.8 5.4 1.0 7.2 5.4 1.7
High-income economies 1.4 0.5 2.3 3.9 2.2 1.9 4.5 3.4 3.0
 OECD members 1.4 0.5 2.2 3.7 2.0 2.2 4.5 3.3 3.0
Total reporting economies 2.2 1.8 3.2 4.8 2.8 2.5 4.9 3.9 3.2
 Oil exporters 3.3 2.1 2.7 9.4 3.3 −0.1 6.4 8.0 2.4

Note: Figures in italics are for years other than those specified.


Table A.7 - Consumption, investment, and saving, selected years, 1965 to 1988
(percentage of GDP)

Country group and indicator 1965 1973 1980 1985 1986 1987 1988 a
Low- and middle-income economies
  Consumption 79.4 76.1 74.7 75.9 76.6 75.2 74.8
  Investment 20.4 23.2 26.9 24.1 24.2 24.1 25.6
  Saving 18.9 21.7 23.6 21.2 20.8 22.3 22.6
 Low-income economies
  Consumption 81.8 76.7 74.6 76.5 76.4 74.4 74.2
  Investment 19.1 22.7 25.8 27.0 27.5 27.0 27.8
  Saving 17.8 21.0 24.4 22.4 22.4 24.2 24.4
 Middle-income economies
  Consumption 77.3 75.7 74.7 75.7 76.8 75.6 75.2
  Investment 21.3 23.3 27.5 22.7 22.7 23.0 24.9
  Saving 19.9 22.2 23.2 20.7 20.1 21.5 21.9
 Sub-Saharan Africa
  Consumption 84.0 79.1 78.6 87.8 89.0 85.5 85.0
  Investment 14.3 18.3 20.5 12.2 14.6 15.4 15.4
  Saving 13.8 16.9 18.2 8.8 6.7 8.1 8.3
 East Asia
  Consumption 77.6 71.6 69.1 69.1 67.7 65.6 65.9
  Investment 22.3 27.3 30.7 30.9 30.1 29.8 30.9
  Saving 22.3 25.8 29.7 29.5 31.1 33.3 33.3
 South Asia
  Consumption 87.5 84.7 84.8 81.1 81.8 81.0 80.8
  Investment 16.8 17.0 22.1 23.9 22.8 21.3 22.1
  Saving 11.9 14.9 15.3 18.0 17.2 17.9 18.0
 Europe, Middle East, and North Africa
  Consumption 78.1 73.1 73.1 75.4 76.9 78.8 ..
  Investment 21.9 25.3 30.5 28.3 .. .. ..
  Saving 17.8 24.2 25.8 22.3 21.1 18.8 ..
 Latin America and the Caribbean
  Consumption 76.4 78.4 77.2 77.8 80.2 77.7 75.9
  Investment 20.3 21.2 24.2 17.6 17.4 19.7 21.5
  Saving 21.1 19.4 20.3 16.8 14.9 17.9 19.6
 Severely indebted middle-income economies
  Consumption 76.0 77.8 76.8 76.8 79.3 77.0 75.0
  Investment 20.9 21.5 25.1 18.7 18.7 20.5 22.4
  Saving 21.0 19.5 20.5 18.0 16.1 18.8 20.9
 High-income economies
  Consumption 82.6 76.3 77.4 80.0 79.6 79.3 78.0
  Investment 16.7 22.7 22.0 19.7 19.9 20.4 21.6
  Saving 17.7 24.1 23.2 20.4 20.7 20.9 22.2
 OECD members
  Consumption 79.6 76.4 78.2 80.1 79.6 79.2 78.0
  Investment 19.8 22.7 22.0 19.6 19.8 20.4 21.5
  Saving 20.8 24.1 22.3 20.1 20.6 20.9 22.1
 Total reporting economies
  Consumption 82.0 76.2 76.7 79.2 79.1 78.6 77.5
  Investment 17.5 22.9 23.2 20.7 20.7 21.1 22.4
  Saving 18.0 23.7 23.3 20.5 20.7 21.1 22.2
 Oil exporters
  Consumption 76.2 69.9 63.5 74.8 79.2 75.8 76.1
  Investment 19.9 22.5 25.7 23.3 24.2 23.9 25.2
  Saving 18.6 25.2 35.0 23.8 20.2 22.8 22.1

a. Preliminary.


Table A.8 - Growth of export volume, 1965 to 1988

Country group and commodity Average annual change in export volume (percent)
1965–73 1973–80 1980–86 1986 1987 1988
By commodity
Low- and middle-income economies 5.3 3.8 4.8 5.9 7.4 7.3
 Manufactures 11.6 12.8 9.5 8.4 17.6 10.2
 Food 2.4 4.2 3.1 −0.7 7.2 −0.1
 Nonfood 2.1 0.4 2.2 5.3 1.4 9.8
 Metals and minerals 4.8 6.5 1.2 6.4 13.4 −4.1
 Fuels 5.6 −0.4 2.0 7.1 −7.0 6.6
Total reporting economies 8.7 4.6 2.9 4.9 6.0 6.3
 Manufactures 10.7 6.1 4.5 2.2 7.0 8.4
 Food 4.6 6.8 2.9 11.4 11.7 −2.1
 Nonfood 3.1 0.9 2.5 1.4 17.2 11.1
 Metals and minerals 6.8 8.6 1.5 5.9 2.1 −8.0
 Fuels 8.7 0.5 −1.9 12.1 −4.3 ..
By country group
Low- and middle-income economies 5.3 3.8 4.8 5.9 7.4 7.3
  Manufactures 11.6 12.8 9.5 8.4 17.6 10.2
  Primary goods 4.4 1.2 2.1 4.1 0.3 4.9
 Low-income economies 9.6 2.2 2.9 9.2 3.9 7.6
  Manufactures 1.8 8.5 10.0 15.5 23.5 15.8
  Primary goods 11.2 1.1 0.6 6.7 −4.7 3.1
 Middle-income economies 4.0 4.4 5.3 4.9 8.5 7.2
  Manufactures 16.7 13.8 9.5 7.0 16.4 8.9
  Primary goods 2.5 1.2 2.6 3.3 2.1 5.6
 Sub-Saharan Africa 15.1 0.2 −2.0 −0.1 −1.8 1.2
  Manufactures 7.6 5.6 4.8 2.9 4.3 5.3
  Primary goods 15.4 0.0 −2.5 −0.4 −2.3 0.8
 East Asia 9.7 8.7 9.7 15.9 14.3 9.4
  Manufactures 17.5 15.5 13.3 19.2 24.9 12.8
  Primary goods 7.3 4.7 5.7 11.7 −0.2 3.6
 South Asia −0.7 5.8 4.1 9.1 11.2 6.7
  Manufactures 0.6 8.2 3.5 10.4 20.9 7.5
  Primary goods −1.8 3.1 5.0 7.7 0.0 5.5
 Europe, Middle East, and North Africa .. .. .. .. .. ..
  Manufactures .. .. .. .. .. ..
  Primary goods .. .. .. .. .. ..
 Latin America and the Caribbean −0.9 0.9 3.4 −4.2 3.9 8.1
  Manufactures 16.6 10.1 8.1 −10.6 5.5 19.3
  Primary goods −1.7 −0.5 2.3 −2.2 3.5 4.8
 Severely indebted middle-income economies −0.3 1.9 3.9 −3.5 2.9 11.4
  Manufactures 16.9 12.1 9.0 −8.3 6.1 20.0
  Primary goods −1.1 0.3 2.5 −1.9 1.9 8.6
High-income economies 9.9 4.8 2.4 4.6 5.5 6.0
  Manufactures 10.6 5.5 3.9 1.3 5.3 8.1
  Primary goods 8.9 3.5 −0.6 12.9 6.0 1.3
OECD members 9.4 5.4 3.6 3.4 6.0 5.3
  Manufactures 10.6 5.2 3.7 1.4 4.5 7.4
  Primary goods 6.7 5.9 3.1 9.5 10.0 −0.4
 Oil exporters 8.7 0.0 −4.6 12.5 −4.4 10.9
  Manufactures 11.7 3.9 9.5 7.3 13.6 11.4
  Primary goods 8.6 −0.1 −5.6 13.1 −6.4 10.9


Table A.9 - Change in export prices and terms of trade, 1965 to 1988
(average annual percentage change)

Country group 1965–73 1973–80 1980–86 1986 1987 1988
Export prices
Low- and middle-income economies 6.2 14.7 −4.9 −10.6 11.0 6.1
 Manufactures 6.4 8.2 −2.2 9.4 8.6 8.9
 Food 5.9 8.6 −2.7 7.6 −7.0 14.4
 Nonfood 4.6 10.2 −4.8 −1.1 21.7 2.8
 Metals and minerals 2.5 4.7 −4.4 −4.8 11.4 28.2
 Fuels 8.3 26.0 −10.1 −46.7 22.0 −15.0
High-income OECD members
 Total 4.8 10.3 −1.4 12.2 11.4 8.3
 Manufactures 4.5 10.9 −0.3 19.0 13.7 7.0
Terms of trade
Low- and middle-income economies 0.1 2.5 −2.7 −10.9 2.3 −0.2
 Low-income economies −4.9 4.1 −3.0 −16.0 4.3 −1.1
 Middle-income economies 1.8 1.9 −2.7 −9.1 1.8 0.1
 Sub-Saharan Africa −8.5 4.8 −4.0 −21.5 2.9 −4.4
 East Asia −0.6 1.2 −1.3 −6.1 0.5 1.1
 South Asia 3.7 −3.4 1.5 3.1 1.2 2.0
 Europe, Middle East, and North Africa .. .. .. .. .. ..
 Latin America and the Caribbean 3.8 2.3 −3.3 −14.0 −2.3 1.7
 Severely indebted middle-income economies 4.3 1.7 −2.2 −11.4 1.6 0.2
High-income economies −1.2 −2.1 −0.5 7.0 0.2 0.5
 OECD members −1.0 −3.3 1.1 10.6 −0.5 0.7
Oil exporters 0.3 11.5 −7.3 −40.8 11.7 16.5


Table A.10 - Growth of long-term debt of low- and middle-income economies, 1970 to 1989
(average annual percentage change, nominal)

Country group 1970–73 1973–80 1980–86 1987 1988 1989
Low- and middle-income economies
 Debt outstanding and disbursed 18.0 22.2 13.2 13.2 −1.9 1.1
  Official 15.3 17.8 15.3 21.9 0.8 5.7
  Private 20.7 25.6 12.0 7.2 −4.0 −2.6
 Low-income economies
 Debt outstanding and disbursed 16.9 16.6 14.0 25.9 5.0 6.4
  Official 14.9 14.2 13.8 23.1 4.0 8.0
  Private 26.1 23.8 14.6 31.7 7.0 3.4
 Middle-income economies
 Debt outstanding and disbursed 18.4 24.2 13.0 9.6 −4.1 −0.7
  Official 15.6 20.7 16.3 21.3 −1.1 4.3
  Private 20.1 25.9 11.7 3.8 −5.9 −3.8
 Sub-Saharan Africa
 Debt outstanding and disbursed 20.2 23.8 13.7 26.4 0.9 4.9
  Official 17.2 22.3 17.5 27.0 1.6 11.3
  Private 25.6 26.2 8.4 25.2 0.5 8.0
 East Asia
 Debt outstanding and disbursed 23.7 22.7 15.8 13.7 −0.2 1.1
  Official 27.0 17.9 16.4 24.8 1.5 3.3
  Private 20.7 26.6 15.5 6.8 −1.4 −0.6
 South Asia
 Debt outstanding and disbursed 11.6 11.2 12.5 18.3 5.9 9.7
  Official 12.4 10.4 9.3 16.7 4.4 5.5
  Private 1.6 24.5 30.3 23.1 10.3 21.3
 Europe, Middle East, and North Africa
 Debt outstanding and disbursed 22.2 28.9 12.4 15.4 −2.3 4.1
  Official 16.4 25.6 15.9 18.6 −2.0 5.9
  Private 29.9 32.1 9.4 11.9 −2.6 2.0
 Latin America and the Caribbean
 Debt outstanding and disbursed 16.8 21.6 13.1 7.4 −4.8 −3.9
  Official 11.6 15.2 17.4 24.0 1.0 2.9
  Private 18.9 23.5 12.2 2.6 −6.8 −6.5
 Severely indebted middle-income economies
 Debt outstanding and disbursed 16.9 23.9 14.4 9.4 −4.7 −3.1
  Official 12.7 17.5 22.9 23.9 0.7 3.1
  Private 18.5 25.7 12.5 4.4 −6.9 −5.9


Table A.11 - Investment, saving, and current account balance before official transfers, 1965 to 1988
(percentage of GNP)

Country Gross domestic investment
Gross national savings
Balance of payments: current account balance before official transfers
1965–73 1973–80 1980–88 1965–73 a 1973–80 1980–88 1965–73 1973–80 1980–88
Latin America and Caribbean
*Argentina 19.7 23.4 14.4 20.1 22.6 10.0 0.4 −0.7 −4.5
*Bolivia 25.4 24.9 12.1 16.8 18.5 1.6 −8.6 −6.4 −10.5
*Brazil 21.3 23.9 20.7 23.1 19.3 18.5 −1.9 −4.6 −2.2
*Chile 14.3 17.3 17.5 11.9 12.1 8.9 −2.4 −5.2 −8.7
 Colombia 18.9 18.8 20.2 15.8 19.0 16.7 −3.2 0.2 −3.5
*Costa Rica 21.8 25.5 27.9 13.0 13.8 17.7 −8.8 −11.7 −10.2
*Ecuador 19.0 26.7 23.3 12.7 21.2 17.4 −6.2 −5.6 −5.9
 Guatemala 13.3 18.7 13.4 11.6 16.4 9.3 −1.7 −2.3 −4.2
*Honduras 18.6 24.9 17.5 14.0 14.6 7.8 −4.6 −10.2 −9.7
 Jamaica 32.0 20.2 23.8 23.7 13.6 13.7 −8.4 −6.6 −10.2
*Mexico 20.6 24.2 23.5 16.5 20.2 21.9 −4.0 −4.0 −1.6
*Nicaragua 20.1 18.7 21.8 13.5 9.0 −5.6 −6.5 −9.7 −27.4
*Peru 24.1 23.9 27.4 19.5 19.7 22.7 −4.6 −4.1 −4.6
*Uruguay 12.0 15.7 12.6 12.0 11.3 9.8 0.0 −4.4 −2.8
*Venezuela 31.1 34.2 22.5 31.9 35.8 24.2 0.8 1.6 1.7
Sub-Saharan Africa
 Cameroon 16.6 21.8 21.6 .. 17.0 16.9 .. −4.8 −4.7
*Congo, People’s Rep. 29.3 34.0 38.2 4.2 10.3 24.5 −25.2 −23.6 −13.8
*Côte d’Ivorie 22.8 29.1 19.4 .. 16.8 8.0 .. −12.3 −11.5
 Ethiopia 12.8 9.5 12.7 11.0 6.9 5.6 −1.8 −2.5 −7.1
 Ghana 12.3 8.7 7.8 8.7 .. 2.7 −3.5 −1.8 −5.1
 Kenya 22.6 26.2 25.7 17.2 16.4 18.7 −5.5 −9.8 −7.0
 Liberia 19.1 28.7 15.0 .. 27.5 6.9 .. −1.2 −8.1
 Malawi 20.0 29.7 18.3 .. 10.7 7.2 .. −19.0 −11.1
 Niger 9.7 23.8 16.3 .. 9.7 1.9 .. −14.1 −14.3
 Nigeria 16.3 22.8 13.9 11.8 24.4 12.3 −4.5 1.6 −1.6
*Senegal 14.7 17.5 16.0 .. 4.2 0.2 .. −13.3 −15.8
 Sierra Leone 13.8 14.1 14.2 9.8 −1.0 7.8 −4.0 −15.1 −6.3
 Sudan 11.9 16.2 13.4 11.0 9.6 .. −0.9 −6.6 ..
 Tanzania 19.9 23.9 19.0 17.3 13.8 10.2 −2.6 −10.0 −8.8
 Zaire 13.7 15.0 15.2 29.3 8.6 5.4 15.6 −6.4 −9.8
 Zambia 31.9 28.5 18.2 34.3 19.9 4.3 2.4 −8.6 −14.0
East Asia
 Indonesia 15.8 24.5 27.6 13.7 24.6 24.4 −2.1 0.1 −3.2
 Korea, Republic of 23.9 31.2 30.3 17.6 25.9 31.7 −6.3 −5.3 −1.4
 Malaysia 22.3 28.7 32.4 22.6 29.4 29.1 0.2 0.6 −3.4
 Papua New Guinea 27.8 22.0 27.1 .. 11.7 5.2 .. −10.4 −21.9
*Philippines 20.6 29.1 22.1 18.7 24.3 17.9 −1.9 −4.8 −4.1
 Thailand 24.3 26.9 25.6 20.5 21.9 21.4 −3.8 −5.0 −4.2
South Asia
 India 17.2 21.3 24.0 14.0 21.0 21.7 −3.3 −0.3 −2.2
 Pakistan 16.1 17.5 19.0 .. 11.7 15.1 .. −5.9 −3.9
 Sri Lanka 15.8 20.6 26.4 11.2 13.4 15.9 −4.6 −7.2 −10.5
Europe, Middle East, and North Africa
 Algeria 32.6 44.6 36.0 30.5 39.0 35.3 −2.2 −5.6 −0.7
 Egypt, Arab Republic of 14.0 29.3 27.7 9.3 18.2 15.6 −4.6 −11.1 −12.1
*Hungary .. 32.0 27.9 .. .. .. .. .. ..
*Morocco 15.1 25.9 26.1 13.6 16.8 19.8 −1.5 −9.0 −6.3
*Poland .. .. 28.3 .. .. 25.4 .. −5.6 −2.9
 Portugal 26.6 29.7 30.3 .. .. 29.4 .. .. −0.9
 Tunisia 23.3 29.9 27.9 17.8 23.2 22.1 −5.5 −6.7 −5.8
 Turkey 18.5 21.8 22.9 17.5 18.1 20.2 −1.0 −3.7 −2.7
 Yugoslavia 29.9 35.6 37.0 27.2 32.9 38.0 −2.6 −2.7 −1.0

Note: An asterisk indicates a severely indebted middle-income economy. Figures in italics are for years other than those specified.

a. Excludes transfers, 1965–69.


Table A.12 - Composition of debt outstanding, 1970 to 1988
(percentage of total long-term debt)

Country Debt from official sources
Debt from private sources
Debt at floating rate
1970–72 1980–82 1988 1970–72 1980–82 1988 1973–75 1980–82 1988
Latin America and the Caribbean
*Argentina 12.6 9.0 17.7 87.4 91.0 82.3 6.6 29.2 80.2
*Bolivia 58.2 49.3 81.1 41.8 50.7 18.9 7.3 28.4 21.7
*Brazil 30.7 11.9 24.3 69.3 88.1 75.7 26.1 45.9 62.0
*Chile 46.0 11.1 26.9 54.0 88.9 73.1 8.3 23.4 65.5
 Colombia 68.1 46.1 52.8 31.9 53.9 47.2 5.4 33.7 40.5
*Costa Rica 39.8 36.8 51.5 60.2 63.2 48.5 15.5 42.4 43.6
*Ecuador 51.4 30.6 38.7 48.6 69.4 61.3 8.2 36.5 66.7
 Guatemala 47.5 71.0 74.5 52.5 29.0 25.5 3.5 5.6 10.5
*Honduras 73.8 62.2 79.7 26.3 37.8 20.4 1.8 19.1 18.2
 Jamaica 7.4 68.3 82.9 92.6 31.7 17.1 4.7 17.3 25.7
*Mexico 19.5 10.9 18.1 80.5 89.1 81.9 32.0 61.7 72.0
*Nicaragua 65.3 58.0 80.2 34.7 42.0 19.8 44.2 42.1 20.6
*Peru 15.6 39.4 45.0 84.4 60.6 55.0 16.1 22.9 29.4
*Uruguay 44.2 21.1 21.7 55.8 78.9 78.3 10.1 28.5 69.6
*Venezuela 30.8 3.6 1.5 69.2 96.4 98.5 17.2 57.9 72.8
Sub-Saharan Africa
 Cameroon 82.2 56.6 69.3 17.8 43.4 30.6 1.8 11.3 8.2
*Congo, People’s Rep. 84.0 43.9 49.1 16.0 56.1 50.9 0.0 10.9 40.2
*Côte d’Ivoire 51.4 22.9 40.8 48.6 77.1 59.2 19.3 37.5 35.8
 Ethiopia 87.3 90.9 83.5 12.7 9.1 16.5 1.5 2.1 6.7
 Ghana 56.5 87.9 88.5 43.5 12.1 11.5 0.0 0.0 3.7
 Kenya 58.3 55.0 73.4 41.7 45.0 26.6 2.1 10.2 3.6
 Liberia 81.1 73.5 81.7 19.0 26.5 18.3 0.0 16.9 9.3
 Malawi 85.8 72.2 95.6 14.2 27.8 4.4 2.3 21.9 3.8
 Niger 97.0 41.0 76.9 2.9 59.0 23.1 0.0 13.4 6.4
 Nigeria 68.8 14.7 37.9 31.2 85.3 62.1 0.7 48.8 40.1
*Senegal 59.2 67.8 93.0 40.8 32.2 7.0 24.6 12.0 2.5
 Sierra Leone 60.6 66.4 81.4 39.4 33.6 18.6 3.8 0.1 0.6
 Sudan 86.9 75.4 78.6 13.1 24.6 21.4 2.2 9.4 0.8
 Tanzania 63.7 75.8 93.3 36.3 24.2 6.7 0.4 0.3 2.5
 Zaire 42.5 65.9 90.0 57.5 34.1 10.0 32.8 11.9 5.4
 Zambia 22.0 69.7 87.5 78.0 30.3 12.5 20.7 10.2 13.4
East Asia
 Indonesia 72.1 51.9 58.3 27.9 48.1 41.7 4.9 15.0 25.8
 Korea, Republic of 35.2 34.3 38.2 64.8 65.7 61.8 11.8 29.0 23.8
 Malaysia 51.0 21.9 23.1 49.0 78.1 76.9 17.4 36.7 42.3
 Papua New Guinea 6.1 23.9 33.7 93.8 76.1 66.3 0.0 23.2 17.1
*Philippines 22.6 31.3 44.8 77.4 68.7 55.2 7.3 24.0 41.4
 Thailand 40.1 39.1 46.0 59.9 60.9 54.0 0.4 22.4 27.2
South Asia
 India 95.1 83.9 60.7 4.9 16.1 39.3 0.0 3.0 15.1
 Pakistan 90.6 92.6 93.6 9.4 7.4 6.4 0.0 3.2 8.8
 Sri Lanka 81.6 79.5 82.8 18.4 20.5 17.2 0.0 12.9 4.4
Europe, Middle East, and North Africa
 Algeria 47.2 20.5 23.7 52.8 79.5 76.3 34.0 23.5 35.8
 Egypt, Arab Republic of 70.3 82.1 85.8 29.7 17.9 14.2 3.1 2.3 1.4
*Hungary 0.0 12.0 10.6 0.0 88.0 89.5 0.0 81.3 60.2
*Morocco 79.1 55.9 74.7 20.9 44.1 25.3 2.7 27.2 38.4
*Poland 0.0 0.0 65.5 0.0 0.0 34.5 0.0 0.0 63.3
 Portugal 29.3 24.7 18.1 70.7 75.3 81.9 0.0 33.9 36.3
 Tunisia 71.4 59.9 71.6 28.6 40.1 28.4 0.0 13.6 16.5
 Turkey 92.5 63.3 54.8 7.5 36.7 45.2 0.8 23.0 33.5
 Yugoslavia 37.5 23.6 34.5 62.5 76.4 65.5 3.2 10.1 46.8

Note: An asterisk indicates a highly indebted country.





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